Volahanta Raharimanana

Volahanta Raharimanana

There is a forest in the south of Madagascar named after the supposedly original inhabitants of the land “Mikea”, translated as “Tompontany”. The Mikea forest is an immense semiarid forest located along the coast of the southwestern region of the Big Island. There inhabits a little-known group of primitive people, estimated to count between about 1,000 and 2,000 people (Stiles, 1998). Many researchers have so long overlooked the existence of this group, while believing that Mikea was only a pure fantasy and a myth. It is similar with most of the Malagasy population who still ignore it and/or do not view it as being a part of Malagasy peopling formation. Nevertheless, individuals from a variety of Malagasy ethnic groups turn out to be partially found among the Mikea.

History and Origins of “Mikea”

Due to the lack of investment in infrastructure and the poor condition of many roads of the Big Island, many areas remain unknown and undiscovered such as the case of the Mikea region, on National Road number nine (RN9), in the North of Tuléar. Consequently, Mikea people seem to live in remote areas that are hardly inaccessible and cut off the outside world. The Mikea forest along the west and southwest coast of Madagascar is apparently a spiny and dry forest between Morombe and the Mangoky river in the north and the town of Manambo in the south, an area with a dimension of about 2,000 sq. km. There are many assumptions around the origin of the Mikea that have been established according to archaeological, ethnological and linguistic evidence. The Mikea clans have been thought to originate in Sakalava ethnic groups and other groups who fled into the forest to escape domination and exploitation by the late 17th and 18th centuries Sakalava and Merina dynasties, and the 20th century French Colonists (Dina & Hoerner, 1976). As a matter of fact, there was still no evidence of human occupation in the Mikea forest at that time, namely, prior to the 17th century.

At the same time, many have come also to believe that the Mikeas are descendants of the “Vazimba”, the commonly known as the original inhabitants of the central Highlands, while some have proposed the Masikoro as being their true ancestors. However, Masikoro tribes also known as “inland people” are originally Sakalava people who live with a quite different lifestyle compared to its neighboring ethnic groups “Vezo” and the Mikea. The difference has been shown that Masikoro people are more of the land, Vezo of the sea and the Mikea of the forest.

A point to note is that the Mikea people are forest-dwelling and are fully recognized as among the Malagasy population. They are indeed foragers or hunter-gatherers who are usually described as primitive nomads wandering in the bush to pick up fruits, collect wild plants such as tubers and hunt wild animals including Tenrec – a mammal species endemic to Madagascar that looks like a mouse and a rat – as one of their main and most common animals to hunt.

Sources: Daniel STILES (1998). “The Mikea Hunter-Gatherers of Southwest Madagascar: Ecology and Socioeconomics”; African study Monographs. / Jeanne DINA & Jean-Michel HOERNER (1977). “Etude sur les populations Mikea du Sud-Ouest de Madagascar” ; Omaly sy ny Anio.

Wednesday, 27 January 2021 06:00

The rise of social media influencer marketing

An ever-increasing number of influencers had been shown to rapidly grow over the last decade with the rise of social media. Numerous are young people who engage in influencer marketing seeking to share their expertise in their preferred field of knowledge and specific skilled topics in which they are much more likely at ease. This realm of social media has predominantly gained in popularity, giving an even wide-ranging of opportunities to individuals – consumers, firms, and brands to enter the market of social media influencer. This has undoubtedly become a common phenomenon touching nearly millions of people around the world. By only glimpsing the statistics published in the January 2019 “We Are Social” report, 3.484 billion people were estimated to actively use social media – or 45 percent of the world’s population. Therefore, this percentage inevitably shows that influencer marketing is growing rapidly in importance, and people may likely to rely more on influencers in social media to direct them in their decision making.

Influencers in social media are indeed people who have learnt to build some significant reputation, through what they feel passionate about, interested in, and where they find themselves more skilled and able. The first step for anyone who wants to become a social media influencer is to find their niche. For a more comprehensive knowledge on what truly is social media influencer and how it works more exactly, it is always important to get back to the root of the genuine influencer. Generally, an influencer is “someone who has the power to affect the purchasing decisions of others because of his or her authority, knowledge, position, or relationships with his or her audience; and who has a ‘following’ in a distinct niche, with whom he or she actively engages, and which the size of the following depends on the size of his/her topic of the niche” (Influencer MarketingHub).

Influencer people are not simply considered as marketing tools but are rather proven assets for the brand with which a real social relationship is established. As a result, this link will lead the brand to collaborate with the influencers and in return make it successfully reach its marketing purposes. In contrast, a social media influencer looks the same, except only that the take will go all online, more precisely on social networking platform such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Tik Tok. A social media influencer uses more online marketing strategies aiming at creating more compelling content to attract a large audience.

Considering the number of followers and social media consumers, with regards to social media influencer marketing, there are four types of influencers:

  • Mega-Influencers that group people who have vast number of followers such as celebrities with Kylie Jenner on the top one list.
  • Macro-Influencers, put slightly behind the mega-influencers, those who reach about 40,000 and one million followers.
  • Micro and the nano-influencers, those who are ordinary everyday people who reach between 1,000 and 40,000 followers, and among which most Malagasy figures are.

Becoming a social media star changes your life. Here is a testimony from one of the well-known Malagasy social media influencer Antso Bommartin about what it has changed thus far in her life when she became an influencer: “There are so many opportunities in being an influencer. To be honest, it is always pleasing to get paid for your efforts and hard work because it is not easy to keep creating contents and videos. That is why I am very demanding in terms of remuneration. As for the challenges, I find myself to be more careful and selective in what I utter, not to shock and offense the audience. I am really convinced that being an influencer highly requires intelligence and thoughtfulness because your sayings may easily be misinterpreted.”

Sources: Influencer MarketingHub / Forbes

Madagascar is home to more than 150 species of chameleon. About half of the world’s endemic chameleon species can be spotted on the Big Island. Chameleons essentially belong to the reptile family like snakes and lizards, more precisely to Chamaeleonidae family. The most common species are the Brookesia, Furcifer and Calumma chameleon. These constitute the three genera of chameleons present and endemic to Madagascar.

Calumma. This species includes a large number of chameleons dispersed around Madagascar and much more visible in the dense forest of the eastern coast of the island. Calumma Parsonii or Parson’s chameleon is one the world’s largest Calumma species. The body length of a Parson’s chameleon male could reach up to 70 centimeters. Parson’s chameleon regroups two distinct subspecies which are Calumma parsonii cristifer and Calumma parsonii parsonii. They are slightly different as regards their habitat choice.

Furcifer. This is a genus of chameleon species. Furcifer pardalis, also known as panther chameleons, are native to and are spread throughout the island, but much more abundant on the central-eastern, north-eastern, northern, and north-western coasts. This species mainly inhabits lowland and dry forests. Furcifer lateralis, known as the carpet chameleon, is a common chameleon species which measures 25 centimeters in length. It differs from other Furcifer species by the white line and the three dark circles drawn in the middle of its belly. This kind of chameleon can be found all around Madagascar except in the northern regions. There is a bigger chance to come across one of them in central Madagascar.

Brookesia. In 2012, researchers from Germany and America have discovered four new chameleon species located in Madagascar and ranked among the smallest reptiles of the world as it does not exceed 30 millimeters in total length, even at maturity. These chameleons belong to the genus “Brookesia”; also known as leaf chameleons or stumped-tailed, Brookesia chameleon lives in the remote forests of Madagascar. Brookesia Micra is included among these four world’s smallest chameleons found on the Island. Indeed, the genus Brookesia appears to be most commonly seen in a single location and tends to live with a very small range. That is the case for the Brookesia Micra, which is only visible on the Archipelago of Nosy Hara, an uninhabited small island located in the northwest coast of Madagascar. Due to the specificity of their location, they are considered as threatened species and are highly exposed to extinction, if any habitat depletion and disappearance occur. Like chameleons’ common features, dwarf Brookesia reptiles are diurnal and are also known for their ability to change colors. They are easily found at night sleeping on the leaves of small branches and generally feed on small insects.

Sources: Wildmadagascar.org/ animaldiversity.org/ the world

What to expect from the 2021 US Presidential Inauguration?

The US Congress finally announced on the 7th of January the victory of the President-elect Joe Biden over former President Donald Trump. The new elected President won the Electoral College votes with a clear score of 306 - 232. Following up the American tradition, the inauguration of Joe Biden and his teammate Kamala Harris – Vice President, will be held on the 20th of January in front of the Capitol building in Washington D.C.
Despite the drastic event that happened last week in the Capitol Hill from pro-Trump supporters to protest the victory of Bidden-Harris the day before the confirmation of the final results, the President-elect Joe Biden still remained confident with what occured. He appears to be impatient to take office and reunify America, as he has already planned, when the presidential run started. Under the theme “AMERICA UNITED”, the Presidential Inaugural Committee aims to keep with the existing tradition by transmitting the shared values that will instill an overall sense of unity and pride among all American citizens. The committee said that the theme “reflects the beginning of a new national journey that restores the soul of America, brings the country together, and creates path to a brighter future”.

The unfolding of the Inauguration Day on January 20
The 2021 Presidential inauguration will mark a new chapter for America, as it will be the day when President-elect Joe Biden will be sworn in as the 46th President of the United States. Keeping with US tradition, both Biden and Harris will take the inaugural oath of office in front of the US Capitol, before Biden assuming his duties and delivering a public address.

This 59th quadrennial presidential Inauguration is going to look less similar to previous ones. Attendees will be strictly limited in size for sanitary and security reasons. Measures have been taken to ensure the population’s safety during the ceremony: no festivity nor gathering is allowed.
In that case, the common usual parade will go virtual and nearly all activities will be held online. The ceremony will start at 11 am (4 pm GMT) and the parade is projected to occur at around 2-3 pm (7-8 pm GMT).

Well known singer Lady Gaga is set to perform the national anthem, and a lineup of famous artists is expected to deliver live performances during the ceremony: Jennifer Lopez, Justin Timberlake, Jon Bon Jovi, Demi Lovato, and Ant Clemons.

Upon the inauguration day, the president-elect recites the oath of office as follows: I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States. On the other hand, the elected Vice President will swear “to support and defend the constitution” and “faithfully discharge the duties of the office. Just after they will have sworn in, the first day of “Biden-Harris” in office starts. Congratulations to Joe Biden and Kamala Harris. Congratulations to American people!

Sources: The Washington Post / the Telegraph / ShareAmerica

Monday, 18 January 2021 06:00

Commemorating Martin Luther King’s legacy

Martin Luther King Day (MLK) is observed each year on the third Monday of January and today marks this holiday observance.

MLK Day proves to be the only federal holiday designated as a national day of service aiming at helping communities and promoting real social changes. The day has become a real occasion for Americans to go volunteering so as to empower their counterparts and help their communities. However, it is always important to recall that MLK Day is above all a holiday that honors the achievements of Martin Luther King, Jr.

Martin Luther King’s life and legacy

Born on January, 15 1929, Martin Luther King, Jr. was a Baptist minister and an important civil rights activist. He spent his early life in Atlanta where he attended many different colleges before graduating a doctorate’s degree in Boston University School of Theology. Later, he came back to serve besides his father as co-pastor at Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. Dr King was one of the most-known influential leaders of the sixties civil rights movement. He dedicated all his life to advocating for nonviolent resistance against inequality and racial segregation. Indeed, he always showed a real commitment and devotion towards helping his Black American counterparts through nonviolent actions. His civil rights struggle started in 1955 when he helped organize the Montgomery bus boycott – a campaign intended to end segregation on public transport – and found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957. By the 1960s, he was then found to lead a march on Washington. Eventually, his struggle paid off and the civil rights act was promulgated in 1964. In the meantime, he was awarded the Nobel Prize of Peace and in 1965 the voting rights act was enacted. Three years later, on April 4, 1968, he was assassinated in Tennessee.

Observance and celebration of MLK Day

Martin Luther King Day is a public Holiday that is recognized by all 50 states of America, where it is a day off for the overall population. MLK Day was signed by Ronald Reagan and then put into law in 1983; but it was three years later that it became an official holiday. It is both combined with Civil Rights Day, a state holiday mostly celebrated in Arizona and New Hampshire that honors civil rights activists; and Idaho Human Rights Day, observed as a public holiday in the State of Idaho but celebrated by the general population along with Martin Luther King Day. MLK Day is usually celebrated through marches, parades, and speeches but with the critical situation the world is currently facing, this may probably occur differently. People may choose to celebrate and honor it at home with family by spending cheerful moments while empowering one another, given that it has been considered as a community-centered holiday. Indeed, MLK Day is first and foremost a holiday that honors Dr King’s commitment to improving the lives of others; and then encourages people to keep the good work while taking into account the legacy he has left to all American citizens.

Sources: ShareAmerica / AmeriCorps

Sunday, 17 January 2021 07:00

Do people still read books?

A 2002 survey “Reading at Risk” conducted by the Census Bureau at the request of the National Endowment for the Arts has already revealed a significant decline in reading among American young people and adults.

The report can be summarized in a single sentence: literary reading in America is not only declining among all groups, but the rate of decline has accelerated, especially among young, according to Dana Gioia, Chairman at National Endowment for the Arts. Throughout the survey, the number of American young adults, who used to read literary or any other kind of book, significantly declined. Namely, less than half of the adult American population now reads literature. In the same way, the percentage of the US adult population reading any books has dropped by seven percent over the past decade. This survey’s results dated back two decades ago, but the rate of reading among American young and adult people keeps fluctuating over time. In 2019, it has even been reported that 72 percent of US adult respondents declared having read a book within the past year, regardless of the format of the book. 65 percent reported that they prefer reading paper version of books. A study by Pew Research Center showed that printed books have continued to be more popular compared to other book formats such as ebooks and audiobooks.

It has been found that the remaining percentage of those who declare to have not read nor finished a book was composed of people with limited incomes or with lower education levels (high school degree and less). According to a Pew Research study, roughly a quarter of American adults do not read books at all. It argues that “non-book reading” among Americans correlated with several demographic characteristics that range from wealth to education level. The study also revealed that “non-book readers” are mostly common among those who do not have access to a library or only those who have never been to. A 2016 survey of Pew found that Hispanic older adults, those living in households earning less than 30,000 dollars and those who have a high school diploma or did not graduate from high school are most likely to report they have never been to a public library. Furthermore, as reading has also been introduced to the digitalization era thanks to the modern technology, some people with lower incomes are less likely to own electronic devices such as smartphones to read digital books. In fact, not affording the access to digital devices still lies as the main reason for the reading gap, which appears to become common within many American households.

Sources: National Endowment for the Arts (extract from the 2020 survey “Reading at Risk”). For full text go to http://www.arts.gov/pub/ReadingAtRisk.pdf / Pew Research

High school extracurricular activities are an essential part of the American educational system. As a key part of the program of American institutions, those activities instill a sense of pride at school and in the community. At the same time, they teach students lifelong lessons alongside the fundamental lessons or curriculum taught in classroom. One of the most significant and rewarding interscholastic or extracurricular activities in US high school is sport.

Playing sports, in addition to contributing to healthier and longer lives, help high school students get more involved in an activity that delivers a large scope of non-physical benefits. Student athletes appear more likely to be more interactive, manifest stronger peer relationships and develop more self-esteem. Indeed, through engaging in physical activity, they develop a great sense of initiative, persistence and responsibility and tend to avoid any risky behaviors. According to a survey of over 14,000 teens from At Your Own Risk – an organization whose mission is to educate, provide resources and equip the public to act and advocate for safety in work, life, and sport – it is found that those who participated in team sports were less likely to consume drugs, smoke cigarettes and carry weapons. Another survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also confirms that students who participate in high school sports are less likely to engage in activities that could have a negative impact on their health. At the same time, they found that sports participation reduces the chance of obesity or type diabetes, which are mostly due to the lack of physical activity.

Participation in sports is beneficial for American students who search for improving their academic results as high school athletics have always been shown to highly enhance students’ grades. In fact, engaging in youth sports opens doors to high school athletes in search of new opportunities. 15 percent of high school athletes are perceived to be more likely to attend college. Sports have always played an important role in the American society. Similarly, they have essentially served as an everyday social scene and interaction within American colleges and universities. By playing for a college team, excellent athlete students from high school have the chance to be awarded a scholarship so as to pursue an undergraduate degree at the university. However, high school athletes who seek to get scholarships should know first how athletic scholarships and university sport programs truly work. Overall, university sports programs are offered at the intercollegiate (organized competition) and the intramural (club-like, less competitive) levels. Many universities offer sports scholarships at the intercollegiate level to students who are both academically qualified and skilled in a particular sport; this proves that the benefit of sports in US high schools is not only limited to regular physical activities to remain mentally and physically healthier, or to improve the student’s concentration and classroom behavior.

In fact, high school sports for American parents have come to be a real opportunity for their children to join in an activity that is most apparently rewarding both academically, socially, and physically. Moreover, it is important to note that many US schools highly promote and support athletics. Therefore, it is absolutely fair to say that sport remains one of the most popular extracurricular activities among other ones, that many parents still choose for their kids.

Sources: atyourownrisk.org/ CDC

Interesting facts about the origin of the Malagasy language

Did you know 70 percent of the Malagasy words have been apparently shown to originate in Austronesian language family and 30 percent from other language roots?

The formation of the Malagasy language may obviously be thought to have a direct link with the first settlement and the early peopling of Madagascar. However, according to some studies based on linguistic and archeological evidence about the origins of the Malagasy population, Austronesians were not the first settlers of the island. In fact, the Malagasy territory was first occupied by hunter-gatherers migrating from the East African mainland prior to 300 BC. Then, it was reached by Greco-Roman trading ships. Then came the “Malay” after establishing a raiding and trading along the East African coast from the 5th century onwards. The continuing contact of the island of Southeast Asia and the East African coast spurred the Malay settlers to transport mainland African population from the Sabaki-speaking area to Madagascar as an agricultural labor force, between the 5th and 7th centuries (Blench & Walsh, 2009). In addition, it has also been reported that there was a substantial evidence of Islamic and a limited Indian influence on both the Malagasy language and culture. The Indian influence was essentially spread by the vast trading network throughout the Indian Ocean. (Hurles, Matthew E; et al. 2005).These multitudes of settlement evidence highly reflect the cultural and linguistic diversity of the big Island.

Despite many different cultural and linguistic traces of the Malagasy ancestry and the evidence of lineages, the Malagasy language – the official language spoken throughout Madagascar by the entire population –mainly belongs to the Austronesian family. This has come to be more closely related to Maanyan, a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in the Southeast Borneo; but it has also a close affinity with the languages of some western regions of Indonesia including Sulawesi, Malaysia, and Sumatra. Malagasy also bears similarities to loanword languages from Malay, Javanese, Balinese, more of the languages of south Sulawesi, and the Minangkabao language of Sumatra.

With its variety of languages combination, Malagasy is unique in some points, unlike other African languages. It would even probably be right to assume that the Malagasy belongs to African language families as it is located near the African continent; but surprisingly, it turns out not to be the case. Nevertheless, in the Malagasy language there appears to be an influence of the Bantu language – a Sub-Saharan African language – most particularly in terms of phonetics.

Later, many other languages such as French, English, and other European languages (Portuguese, Spanish) were introduced into Madagascar and borrowed to form new Malagasy words. The French language which emerged during the colonial period has even become one of the two official languages of Madagascar – Malagasy and French. Some examples of loanwords from the Indonesian language include valy/vady which means namana, eo anila (Nosy Bali); Ehoala, Ankoalabe, Ankoala in Malagasy language which means ranomasina miditra anaty tany (Kuala Lumpur); Atsimo/ atimo that points out the southern side of the compass points (Nosy Timor). Here are other loanword examples: karama from Sanskrit; omby from Bantu; zoma from Arab, boky from English, and latabatra from French.

Sources: Blench R. M., Walsh M. 2009. Faunal names in Malagasy: their etymologies and implications for the prehistory of the East African Coast / Hurles, Matthew E., Sykes, B. C., Jobling, M. A. & Forster, P. 2005 The dual Origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Africa and East Africa: evidence from maternal and paternal lineages / Tambajotra Sangambita 2014 Ahitsio ny diso, Boky I

Human beings are characterized by their eagerness to improve their living conditions at every level. For that reason, they continuously seek for means to fulfill the desire for a better life by acquiring new knowledge and skills through many different teaching and learning methods. A variety of educational options and programs have been set up. Pedagogy - one of the long-standing theories and methods used in educating children - appears at the top of the list. The term “pedagogy” first appeared in the mid to late 1500s in Middle French. Later, “andragogy” emerged, a term that was first coined in the 1800s by Alexander Knapp, a German educator, but popularized in the 1960s by Malcolm Knowles, an American educator well-known for his focus on adult learning. In fact, andragogy is the art and science of teaching adults and refers to the methods or practices used to educate adults.

Malcolm Knowles conceptualized the term by elaborating theories and practices to satisfy adult learners’ needs.  Through his specific theoretical approaches, he identified six andragogical assumptions about the characteristics of adult learners. Here they are:

  1. The need to know. In some cases, adults always feel the need to know why they learn something new before undertaking it.  Even though andragogy focuses much more on self-directed learning, it can be cooperative among other adult learners. There are surely facilitators who can help them find the purpose behind their desire to know something and make them aware of their choice before engaging in the learning process.
  2. The learners’ self-concept. Adults adopt new attitudes that move them from dependent people into self-directed and more responsible human beings.
  3. The role of adult learners’ experiences. Over the span of their lives, as they grow up, adults may accumulate a certain amount of experience that allows them to increase their learning skills. Their life experience is used as a learning resource.
  4. Readiness to learn. As people mature, they become task-oriented and want to learn what they need to know, and they feel ready to learn what they can immediately apply to their real-life situations.
  5. Orientation to learning. When reaching a certain age, adult learners’ perspective changes as they become increasingly life-centered. Their perspective moves from subject-based centeredness to task and problem-centeredness.  They learn with the purpose of being able to cope with their current problems.
  6. Motivation to learn. Adults’ motivation to learn is mostly spurred by internal factors or internal motivators such as the desire for productivity for instance, or just for increasing self-esteem.

Getting to know these six assumptions appear to be highly helpful for teachers who engage in andragogy. At the same time, it will make adult learners successful in their goal achievement.

Source: Knowles M. S., Swanson, R. A., & Holton, E. F. III (2005). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development (6th ed.)

The 19th century marked the turning point in the history of the United States, as it had grown into a great nation partly thanks to its breakthrough in industrialization. The United States became the strongest in the world in industrial production. With this rise of industrialism, the landscape of the nation changed and millions of immigrants from western and eastern Europe poured into the US in search of better lives. This was made possible when the civil war ended in 1865, entitling New York as the gateway to social freedoms and economic opportunities.  To this very point, the city of New York became home to most American national heritages such as the famous historical and architectural monument “statue of liberty”.  

The history of the statue of liberty

The statue of liberty is one the American national treasures located in New York Harbour, on Liberty Island nearby Ellis Island, the former receiving station for immigrants. The statue, also called “Lady Liberty”, is an iconic figure that was designed to stand as a national symbol. She depicts a universal symbol of freedom, hope and dream and represents the United States itself. Indeed, the end of the civil war, which marked a new era for America, coincided with the construction and design of the statue that both stirred millions of worldwide immigrants’ desire for freedom and opportunities. As the lady liberty stood to gaze over immigrants from Europe arriving at Ellis Island through the early 20th century, she fed their mind with new vision and hope. To them, the statue of liberty symbolized the American dream. In other respects, the statue was originally conceived as an emblem of the lasting friendship between the peoples of France and the United States. At the same time, it was a sign that represented the search for liberty. The idea of gifting a statue came from a Frenchman named Edouard de Laboulaye.  His ideas came up as an evidence of the close relationship between France and America, but Edouard wished also to commemorate the centennial of the declaration of the American independence. It is the French sculptor Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi who conceptualized the colossal structure of the statue assisted by Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel, the man behind the famed Eiffel Tower of Paris, who designed the statue’s massive structural framework.

The symbols hidden on lady liberty

The statue of liberty also known as “Liberty Enlightenening the world” is far much more than a simple architectural statue. It was perfectly designed with aesthetic and with much symbolism and hidden meanings. The statue was, for instance, modeled after the roman goddess of freedom or Libertas. The lady liberty’s official name “liberty enlightenening the world” was taken from the torch in her raised right hand, which represents the flambeau or the candle-flame that enlightens the path to liberty. Her crown in the form of diadem features her divinity and the seven spikes on it symbolize the sun rays that reflect the seven continents of the Earth. The tablet in lady liberty’s left hand and on which is inscribed with July 4, 1776 in roman numerals is called “tablet of law” and depicts the American Independence and the establishment of the US constitution. These are only few of the symbols that encompass the lady liberty but there are more other design details that symbolize much more.

Sources: HISTORY / statueofliberty.org / National Parc Service (nps.gov)

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This website was funded by a grant from the United States Department of State. The opinions, findings and conclusions stated herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.