Volahanta Raharimanana

Volahanta Raharimanana

Life on earth is inextricably linked to the oceans. The oceans can affect our health in a variety of ways. That is why every year on June 8 – the day designated by the United Nations to celebrate World Oceans Day – we recall the importance of the ocean in humans’ life by calling for awareness towards its protection.

The air we breathe comes largely from the ocean which produces over half of the world’s oxygen and stores 50 times more carbon dioxide than our atmosphere. It contributes also in regulating our climate by covering 70 percent of the earth’s surface through transporting heat from the equator to the poles. Similarly, oceans are a source of overall well-being by providing the water and medications we need. In short, oceans can be considered as one of the main foundations of human life.

Nevertheless, human action damages the nature, and we fail to restore what we have destroyed. We expose the world’s waterways to an increasing variety of pollutants – plastic, debris, chemical runoff, crude oil and more. As a result, statistics show that 100 million marine animals die each year from plastic waste alone; 100,000 marine animals die from getting interwoven in plastic yearly and one in three mammal species get found entangled in litter.

Data also show that 90 percent of ocean debris worldwide comes from 10 rivers alone. 80 percent of global marine pollution comes from agriculture overflow, untreated sewage, discharge of nutrients and pesticides. Similarly, 80 percent of pollution comes from land-based sources. In fact, 70 percent of our debris sinks into the ocean’s ecosystem, 15 percent floats and 15 percent lands on our beaches. These facts and statistics are so appalling that it should make us fully aware of what the future of the ocean’s ecosystem will hold and react accordingly. Some studies conducted over the last few decades reveal that by 2050, if humans’ actions prevail, our environment would be under imminent peril making plastics outnumbering fish.

The United Nations World Oceans Day – celebrated on June 8 every year – has been set up to remind us of the vital role of oceans, our planet’s lungs. This year, the second fully virtual celebration of UN World Oceans Day will highlight the theme of The Ocean: Life and Livelihoods. The celebration will feature 40 visionary leaders across the world, which include celebrities, institutional partners, community voices, entrepreneurs, and experts.

World Environment Day 2021 theme goes perfectly along with the “Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development” proclaimed by the United Nations which will run from 2021 to 2030. Through the decade, the UN aims to support and strengthen international cooperation to develop scientific research and innovative technologies that can connect science with the needs of society.

Sources: United Nations / Oceanic Global/ Condor Ferries



In Madagascar, Western culture prevails and continues to profoundly affect today’s Malagasy society. This is partly due to the increasing globalization process that can pressure some countries to forgo their cultural identity and values to go with the mainstream. Maintaining their own cultural values, nowadays, may seem rather out of the ordinary. However, what differs from one country to another is its cultural identity which is wrapped up in the country’s history.

In Madagascar, since the time of first inhabitants, a custom which consists in respecting elders and ancestors within the Malagasy society has come to exist. Historically speaking, the Malagasy society has had a hierarchical social structure based on kinship groups that are ranked according to their respective social status, either superior or inferior. Individuals in the group are then ranked according to their age, gender and descent. This social division following a hierarchical structure in the Malagasy society explains why elders and ancestors are of great significance and worth. The traditional Malagasy worldview is shaped by values that emphasize solidarity, which means “Fihavanana” in Malagasy, and “hasina”, which is known as a sacred life force. Ancestors or razana, who are highly venerated by Malagasy people are perceived as the source of “hasina”. For their “hasina”, ancestors are respected and are believed to be able to oversee, to protect and to influence events on earth. To honor their ancestors, Malagasy people organize a big funeral celebration and practice the “Famadihana” or exhumation.

It is also through that life-given power that many individuals and family groups are distributed. Back to the royal time, sovereigns and nobles were endowed with a greater level of hasina than others because they had higher social status and ruled over a territory allowing them to be more respected. Similarly, within family groups of any rank, elder people possess also greater hasina than the younger generations thanks both to their virtue in maturity and the Malagasy belief that these elders are close to the dead and thus share in part their power. Showing respect to the elders and ancestors in society has then become an essential part of the Malagasy culture, customs, and even education. Children, at their early age, are already taught and prepared to take their place in a social hierarchy dominated by community elders and the ancestors. In this system, the failure to honor the hierarchy may be considered a fady – something which is forbidden – or a punishable custom violation. For instance, in Malagasy households, it is forbidden for children to eat before their elders. The youngest must always be the last served.

Malagasy people have always been conservative towards honoring social values and perpetrating traditions. Holding onto these values made it easier for them to hierarchically organize their social system. However, with the world which is constantly evolving and many changes operating, holding a traditional perception may no longer be of a great help. Anyway, keeping one’s customs and cultural identity while following the flow of change remain the best solution.

Sources: Wild Madagascar / EDBM / World Nomads

The degradation of the Earth’s ecosystems stem from humans’ demanding actions on nature. For too long, we have exploited and damaged our planet home.

The Earth was formed about 4.5 billion years ago, and modern humans have existed only for about 315,000 years. Yet, we, humans, are destroying our only safe refuge. According to WWF, more than a third of Earth’s natural resources have been destroyed in just thirty years. We consume and overuse planet Earth‘s natural resources to support our way of life and to supply us more than the biosphere can regenerate itself. As a result, we face what is called “ecological overshoot” now that we find ourselves living beyond the ecological capacity of the planet. Since 1970, an “Earth Overshoot Day” has been dedicated to mark the phenomenon. Last year, the day was observed on August 22.

If we keep on consuming our planet exceedingly, we will need to anticipate the disastrous consequences of our actions. Many of these are already happening now and the ecological footprint has been already traced. Some shocking environmental facts and statistics revealed that since 2016, an average of 28 million hectares have been cut down every year. Over 20 percent of species are at critical risk of extinction due to wildlife destruction. If no action is taken to tackle greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, global temperatures could increase by a massive five degrees Celsius by 2100. The rate of groundwater pollution doubled between 1960 and 2000 and is now over 280 square kilometers per year. The world could run out of rainforests by 2100, food by 2050, fish by 2048, and water by 2040.

Focus on ecosystem restoration.

Since we have used one third of the Earth’s resources and increased our consumption over these last decades, we encounter serious ecosystem loss which could get worse in the years to come and become even more disastrous. However, there is still a chance to restore our beloved planet. That is why every year, we have a special day dedicated to reminding the world of the importance of nature and of maintaining it alive. Every 5th of June, we celebrate World Environment Day, an occasion to heal the ecosystem. Under the theme “Reimagine. Recreate. Restore”, World Environment Day 2021 will focus more on ecosystem restoration which consists in preventing, halting and reversing the degradation of ecosystems worldwide. On this occasion, World Environment Day launches the “UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration” (2021-2030), a rallying call for protection and revival of ecosystems around the world, for the benefit of people and nature. The year 2030 is known as the deadline for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s) and the deadline that scientists have identified as the last chance to prevent catastrophic climate change (decadeonrestoration.org). A decade-long action plan has been set up following the resolution adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on the 1st of March 2019. The resolution includes recalling the outcome document of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on June 20-22, 2012, entitled “The future we want”, in which the role of ecosystem restoration in achieving sustainable development was highlighted. The resolution also includes emphasizing that forests, wetlands, drylands, and other natural ecosystems are essential for sustainable development, poverty alleviation and improved human well-being.

By the way, the official celebrations of World Environment Day 2021 take place in Pakistan.

Sources: United Nations/ United Nations General Assembly/ The World Counts

When you are an international student and that you plan to pursue your study in the US – apart from getting to know about American’s culture and people’s way of living – you most importantly need to learn about how US education works as well.

In fact, the US remains among the best countries providing top-quality education according to the 2018 Education rankings of Global Partnership for Education. Similarly, the US is at the number one spot in terms of education across the world, according to the 2020 Best Countries Report. These explain the increase in number of international students pouring into the United States. It has even been showed that the US has the world’s largest international student population, with more than one million students choosing to broaden their education in the US and dwell in.

Before deciding to enroll in any US colleges, international students need to know first that there is what is called “standardized test” which is mandatory, unless it is not among the requirements of the college they apply for – as it really depends on colleges’ admission requirements. Yet most of the time, US colleges, especially prestigious ones, demand a standardized testing as the first entrance examination, which is not only meant for international students but also for American students. A standardized test in US education is a test that is given to students and is scored in a consistent or “standard” manner. The test questions, the conditions of administering, and the scoring procedures are consistent or the same for all students. In some US primary schools, pupils have already taken standardized tests; but once they finish high school and attend college or university, they are free to choose whether they want to take college-admissions tests or not. By contrast, for an international student to be selected and be able to enroll in a college program, he or she is required to take the admission tests and needs to be assessed if he/she meets the requirements.

Indeed, apart from the College-admissions tests, there are other different types of standardized tests which include:

• The Achievement tests, consisting of measuring the knowledge and skills students learn at school or to determine the academic performance throughout the learning process.
• The Aptitude tests, when evaluating a student’s ability to succeed in an intellectual or physical field or another specific one, like assessing mathematical ability or language proficiency for instance.
• The International-comparison tests which are about monitoring achievement trends in individual countries through comparing educational performance across countries. An example of international-comparison tests is the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).
• The Psychological tests – IQ tests – are tests sometimes used to identify students with learning disabilities to measure their cognitive and mental abilities, as well as their emotional, developmental, and social features.

Some of the College-admissions tests in the US

There are different tests required to be admitted in some US colleges:

SAT, which stands for Scholastic Assessment Test and originally called the Scholastic Aptitude Test, is a standardized test intended to assess student’s readiness for college.
ACT, originally an abbreviation for American College Testing, is a standardized test with the purpose to evaluate high school students’ general knowledge of specific skills areas like English, mathematics, social studies, and natural sciences which were renamed later the Science Reasoning test. Both SAT and ACT are designed to assess students’ academic readiness for higher education.
Graduate Record Examinations or GRE, a standardized test for graduate school that aims to measure verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning or mathematics, analytical writing and critical thinking skills.
Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is a standardized test which consists of four sections to assess graduate students who especially enroll in a graduate management program such as an MBA program. The four sections include Verbal Reasoning skill, Quantitative Reasoning skill, Integrated Reasoning skill and Analytical Writing skill.

Sources: Study in the USA / The glossary of Education Reform

Since 1940, the electronic games industry has continued to shape our reality and our life. They have impacted our way of perceiving and interpreting things, especially that of our kids. Video games are generally the fruit of technological advancement and we are currently living in an era where using technological tools is an integral part of our daily lives.

A brief history timeline of video games

In the 40’s, computer scientists invented the first video game that debuted at the World’s Fair in New York. Edward U. Condon designed a computer that plays a game called “Nim” – a simple combinatory game with finite possibilities, involving the use of matchstick and the player who takes the last match loses – that attracted many people at that time. In 1967, Ralph Baer – a German and American inventor and game developer – conceived “the Brown Box”, a television video game allowing users to play tennis and other games on TV screen. The first home video game console was designed in 1972 and “The Magnavox Odyssey” was launched, always based on Baer’s “Brown Box”. That same year, the video game “Pong” developed by Atari, an American video game developer and home computer company, came out along with the first arcade video games.

The industry of electronic games has rapidly evolved despite some failures in video game market. In 1985, Nintendo – the Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company – released the “Nintendo Entertainment System” (NES), a home video game console. Since then, gaming meets the real world and the gaming market has not stopped to expand. With the Tech which kept on growing up, new innovations have also followed up. In 1994, the legend and famed “PlayStation” by Sony or Sony Interactive Entertainment (SEI) – a multinational video game and digital entertainment company – was born. The platform has brought shift in gaming and technology until the present day. Today, video games continue to pave the way of innovation through different entertainment hubs as well as of education and of other spheres.

The benefits of playing video games for kids

Many parents consider only video games as an entertainment like any other technological tool. As so, education has nothing to do with playing a video game, because it is only a source of distraction and that it is most likely to impact negatively the academic performances of kids. What some parents ignore is that playing video games may be beneficial for kids and help them develop mentally, emotionally, and academically. Here are how video games can help your kids.

Video games boost kids’ reading skills. In most video games, there are instructions and rules to be taken into account before or throughout the game, which sometimes occurs in the form of text. So users are assigned to follow and read them to play. It is a fact that today’s kids are not so fond of reading, especially traditional books; but video games would definitely force them to read and improve their reading skills.
Video games increase kids’ problem-solving skills. While playing, users may face challenges at the heart of the game, depending on the kind of game they choose to play. Sometimes, they need to use their brain and knowledge to solve an enigma or to provide solutions to complete or win the game. So, video games give them a hint to be able to take on good decisions and solve any problems they may face within the reality.
Video games help kids become more creative. In fact, games encourage creative thinking and increase kids’ curiosity. This is because almost video games provide something new to discover and to learn. They do not run out of surprises and discoveries, which may help the kid become more interested in learning.

Sources: The Strong National Museum of Play/ Understood (understood.org)

Adolescence is a critical period for young people, since it is a transitional phase of growth demanding more awareness towards themselves and others. Maturity and great decisions are made throughout that stage of transition to adulthood.

It is the period when adolescents start building their own world according to their perception and vision of life, background and surroundings. It is also the period of time when they create their best selves, learn to increase self-esteem and self-confidence so as to live a decent and fulfilled life once they become grown-ups. However, this seems not to be the case for some adolescents nowadays, because due to several factors, either inward or outward, many are seen to suffer from a lack of self-confidence and lose that good self-image of themselves. In fact, self-confidence and self-esteem are the keys which unlock greatness and success.

Confident teens are more likely to be assertive, positive, engaged, enthusiastic and resilient. At the same time, they are also more likely to be successful in all their undertaking, whether it is in academic performance or with any other projects. Indeed, their confidence is related to their self-esteem. When they are more confident, they also feel good about themselves and feel that they are worthwhile persons. Furthermore, self-confidence is also linked to resilience or when a person has the ability to bounce back from difficult experiences. This said, by being resilient and learning to cope with tough times, teens are far more likely to develop a certain feeling of confidence in tackling other challenges and unpleasing situations in the future.

Self-esteem and self-confidence builders tips for teens

Parents play an important role in helping their adolescents manage confidence and they are the ones who can firmly encourage that self-confidence in their teens. Based upon the tips provided by psychologist Carl Pickhardt, here are three effective self-confidence builders for your teens:

FAITH. Here, the word faith can refer to good belief. Parents need first to help their teens believe in themselves through reshaping their way of perceiving things, encouraging them to practice positive affirmations or to use positive self-talks. Through statements like “I can do it”, “I can work hard”, “I am skilled” made in repetitive ways, teens will turn negative thinking into positive one in a short time. As a result, they will believe in themselves and then end up having more confidence with who they are and what they do.
EFFORT. To help teens maintain their self-esteem and self-confidence, parents should also let their children do things on their own and keep trying no matter what. This means, encouraging them to try new things and not to let down when hardships come up. Through that, parents teach their teens to be more resilient and stay focused on effort and accomplishments. Acting with resilience and focus would be then a great self-esteem booster for teens.
OUTCOME. The mix of faith and effort brings up positive results. Indeed, outcomes can hardly affect self-confidence. When a teen has achieved some accomplishments, since he/she believed in himself or herself and always kept striving, he/she becomes fruitful and is more likely to adopt positive attitudes towards the positive outcomes, and eventually gets highly confident in himself/herself.

Source: Psychology Today

Africa has the youngest population in the world. Almost 60 percent of Africa’s population is under the age of 25, making it the world’s youngest continent. Moreover, according to some key statistics provided by UNICEF, Africa’s child population will reach one billion by 2055, making it the largest child population among all continents. By taking into account these statistics data, we may come to say that the number of school-age population would also increase, which has always been a major concern for some African countries. In 2015, over half of the world’s out-of-school children – about 33 million – lived in Africa.

Paving the way of education through Millennium Development Goal 2 (MDG) and Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4)

Despite some figures showing that many African children remain out of school, which are mostly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa, since 2000, enormous progress in terms of education has been made towards achieving MDG’s. Indeed, remarkable successes have been met in fulfilling the target of universal primary education, especially in the poorest regions. This progress is mostly seen in terms of enrollment in primary education which has reached 91 percent. Since the MDG’s were established in any region of Sub-Saharan Africa, it has known the best record of improvement in primary education. Between 2000 and 2015, the region achieved a 20 percentage-point increase in the net enrollment rate, compared to a gain of eight percentage points between 1990 and 2000. As a matter of fact, this enrollment rate grew from 52 percent in 1990 to 80 percent in 2015. Between 1990 and 2012, the numbers of the region’s enrollment doubled – these went from 62 million children to 149 million. Through the MDG 2, Sub-Saharan Africa also achieved a large growth in youth literacy, despite some challenges the region faced including rapid growth of the primary-school-age population – which knew an increase of 86 percent between 1990 and 2015 – high-levels of poverty, armed conflicts, gender barriers and other emergencies.

In the region, girl schooling continues to be significantly lower than male schooling. Of 57 million of worldwide children of primary school age but out-of-school, 33 million are in Sub-Saharan Africa, and more than half are girls. However, thanks to MDG 2 the net primary enrollment rate for girls has risen from 48 percent to 77 percent between 1991 and 2015. Since then, more girls have been seen enrolled in and able to complete a full course of primary schooling. From the 2015 report of MDG’s, ten countries have been able to push their primary school enrollment rate up to 90 percent. The list includes seven Sub-Saharan African countries: Benin, Cameroon, Congo, Mauritius, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia, and three other African countries: Algeria, Cape Verde and Tunisia.

Millennium Development Goal 2 (MDG 2) “Achieve Universal Primary Education”  has been changed into Sustainable Development Goal 4 or SDG 4 which aims to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. For Sub-Saharan Africa, MDG 2 was a success since the goal on ensuring the enrollment of out-of-school children in primary education has appeared to be achieved. On the other hand, the implementation of SDG 4 through the Education 2030 Framework for Action seems also promising to Sub-Saharan Africa towards achieving quality education by 2030. Let’s hope for some more progress and success!

Sources: United Nations/ United Nations Development Programme/ UNESCO

Unlike other festive observances that have familiar narratives or other customs and symbols shared by several cultures and regions, Pentecost is a celebration that is somewhat difficult to relate as a story and to explain as holidays like Christmas and Easter, especially to children. However, like any festivity, Pentecost always instills people’s festive spirit to rejoice and to celebrate the day with family and relatives. Indeed, who does not like feasts?

The story of Pentecost and its celebration

Pentecost is essentially a Christian observance that was initially a major Jewish festival held 50 days after the Feast of Passover, marking the official end of the Easter season. During Pentecost festivities, thousands of people would travel to Jerusalem to bring the first fruits of their wheat harvests to be dedicated to the Temple, and it has remained a perpetrated tradition for many believers. In fact, it took its origin from the story of Jesus Christ and his disciples when they gathered in Jerusalem to wait for Jesus’ instructions for the coming of the Holy Ghost. Etymologically and biblically speaking, the term “Pentecost” means Shavu’ot in Hebrew – also known as the “Jewish Feast of Weeks” which reminds us of God’s revelation on Mont Sinai to Jewish people and the covenant He made to them. Based on the New Testament of the Bible, Pentecost today, also called Whit Sunday or Whitsunday is a festivity that commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples of Jesus-Christ and the birth of the Church.

Talking of celebration, people have their own ways to immortalize the day. In fact, Whit Sunday and Whit Monday – the day after Pentecost – are celebrated together. The two-day feast is mainly an occasion for people to share their perspectives about the meaning of Pentecost through gathering at churches for worship service or spending time together to foster cultural diversity and to enhance fellowship. In the United States, Whit Sunday and Monday are not public holidays. However, some churches organize prayer rallies which include prayers and street marches on the day after Pentecost. In some states, like in Pennsylvania, Whit Monday used to be one of the major annual holidays in Pennsylvania Dutch country and was referred to as the “Dutch Fourth of July” in Lancaster where Pennsylvanians gathered to enjoy time together while eating, drinking and having fun.

A few ideas to celebrate Whitsun week at home

Like other community-centered observances, Pentecost and Whit Monday feasts are also special occasions to be with family and get into the festive spirit. Some interesting ideas for Whitsun celebration may include teaching kids the Pentecost story, using Pentecost symbols which are those of the Holy Spiritflames, wind and dove to make decorations. In fact, these symbols may spark all kinds of imagination and allow Pentecost to be celebrated with fun activities shared with family members. As it is a day dedicated to honor the birth of the Church, and as usual on birthdays, making birthday cakes would be a brilliant idea. These are simply suggestions for the events of Pentecost, but there are many other ways to celebrate it. Happy Whitsun all!

Sources: Time and Date/ Building Faith/ Women for Faith & Family

Lockdown and school disruption due to the pandemic have resulted in highly increased reliance of people, especially adolescents, on online technologies to connect and to interact with one another. However, such an overreliance may expose them more at a serious risk of online violence and abuse, such as stalking, harassment and non-consensual exposure of intimacy.

According to a 2018-survey data of Pew Research Center, 95 percent of teens own a smartphone and have access to it. 45 percent reported to be constantly active online. This percentage reveals the likelihood of an increased rate of cyberbullying and online abuse of teenagers.

Nowadays, many teen girls continue to be targeted of online abuse. This is the recent case of ten young female TikTokers who have undergone sexual harassment in their daily lives and searched for ways to share their stories on social media. It all started with a video that became a viral TikTok trend as the video has reached almost half a million of views and likes. The video was recorded with a sound effect or an audio appealing for a few questions which TikTokers need to respond to by using their fingers. They raise their ten fingers and put down one finger each time the speaker says or asks something likely to match their cases. In fact, it could be compared to the classic drinking game “Never Have I Ever”. It began trending on TikTok in January 2020. The video was uploaded by a young woman TikToker under the username @abbeyborden and was given the name “Put a finger down”.

It was in mid-March that a 19 year old girl named Emilee Grant made a video, the original one, in which she borrowed the game to speak out against sexual abuse and harassment and which has now been viewed over 10 million times. Since that day, many teen girls have been encouraged to record themselves relating their sexual harassment experiences using the “Put a finger down”challenge, also known as the “Put a finger down: Sexual harassment edition”. The video led girls and women to come out of their shell and speak out. It was spreading so quick that it has even become a sort of movement, recalling the legendary #MeToo movement of 2017. This year, the same video became the 2021 TikTok teen version of that #MeToo movement.

A brief historic of the #MeToo movement

The “Me Too” #MeToo Movement is a social movement that aims to fight against sexual abuse and harassment made towards girls and women by speaking out against any sexual violence and/or sex crimes. It was founded in 2006 by Tarana Burke, an American activist and survivor of sexual harassment. It was in 2017 that the movement had gained in popularity, with the #MeToo hashtag that went viral and reached a global community of survivors. Since then, it continues to support and to act as an advocate for many young people victims of sexual violence regardless of their race, gender, and sexual orientation. The goal of the #MeToo movement is that any form of sexual violence will be eradicated and that one day no one will say “me too” again.

Sources: The Conversation/ CNET/ me too

You may have already seen in college movies students partying or organizing events in the campuses with that popular student – boy or girl – who is at the head of a group of people. The group sometimes stands out from others because this one belongs to a supposedly prestigious organization with Greek names like Alpha Phi Alpha, Alpha Delta Chi or Delta Tau Lambda. They call each other brother or sister; and when a new student enters the organization, the leader whom others show more respect sets up integration rituals to welcome the new student. Those student organizations in colleges are called fraternities and sororities.

Most of US colleges and universities have these popular organizations, commonly known as Greek-Letter organizations (GLO’s) or “Greek life”. These are social organizations that have particular significances in American college life and play key roles in college students’ life. Historically, the first college fraternity in US history was established at the College of William & Mary in 1775 and was at that time a secret society named Phi Beta Kappa. This secret society was told to be involved in secret activities such as having dining clubs, elite literary societies and then it spread in other US colleges. Etymologically, the terms “fraternity and sorority” were taken from Latin frater and sorer which mean brother and sister and mostly refer to organizations of university students, but can also apply to other general forms of organization such as charitable or public ones. Fraternity is generally understood to be a social organization consisting of men, whereas sorority one of women. As far as the name “Greek life” is concerned, fraternities and sororities have been generally referred to as the “Greek system”. That is why these organizations usually name themselves after letters taken from Ancient Greek. As both social and University student organizations, fraternities and sororities’ purposes are to promote social and intellectual interests. At the same time, they aim to and are committed to help one another through developing character, literary and leadership ability.

In US colleges, fraternities and sororities have always acted as an integral part of American college life that continues to shape a student’s life, whether it is academic or personal. Although Greek life is not easy – since it is well-known that it is not everyone who could afford studies in American colleges or Universities – it may be a huge opportunity to create networks and develop great careers, especially for international students. Here a list of three famous American fraternities and sororities:

Alpha Phi Alpha, the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity established for African American men, founded on December 4, 1906 at Cornell University, New York by seven college men.
Alpha Delta Chi, a Christian Greek-lettered sorority founded in 1925 at the University of California in Los Angeles by ten women.
Delta Tau Lambda, a collegiate and professional Latina-based sorority founded by two women in 1994 at the University of Michigan.

Sources: Life in the USA/ Studyportals / Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity / Alpha Delta Chi/ Delta Tau Lambda Sorority.

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