Volahanta Raharimanana

Volahanta Raharimanana

After graduating from high school, students are compelled to choose on whether continuing their studies or not, which sometimes make them face different challenges. Deciding which university to apply for and what kind of program to follow is a quite different matter. Those who intend to pursue their studies, however, must get prepared to deal with other constraints regarding their academic choice including the costs of university tuition fees. Luckily, in the U.S., most colleges and universities offer both resident and international students scholarships.

If you are a student desirous to study in the U.S. but do not have the necessary means to cover the costs of your studies, take a look at this list of scholarships available in the U.S. that may help you get funding.

Academic scholarships.

An academic scholarship is generally awarded to students who demonstrate a high level of scholastic aptitude and performance. It is a merit-based scholarship that recognizes the academic achievement of the student. Most U.S. universities offer merit scholarships that cover the full cost of a four-year academic program. For example, Indiana University – Bloomington awards a study grant through the merit-based Wells Scholarship, the Ohio State University – Columbus through the Eminence Fellows program, and the National Merit Scholarship Corporation through its National Merit Scholarship Program.

Athletic scholarships.

Athletic scholarships are very common in the United States. They are mainly awarded to an individual proving an outstanding ability and performance in sports. This can be also an amount of financial aid awarded to a student-athlete from the college athletic department. This is the case for NCAA Division I and II Universities – The National Collegiate Athletic Association – offering athletic scholarships and guaranteeing student-athlete’s success both on the field and in the classroom.

Community service scholarships.

A community service scholarship is a volunteering-based subvention for college students showing strong commitment to their community through volunteering for instance. We can quote the Equitable Excellence Scholarship, which can award up to $25,000 to U.S. citizens who engage in positively impacting their community. It is similar to the Prudential Spirit of Community Awards, which provide grants for both in-state and international students.

Scholarships for hobbies and extracurricular activities.

Passion, talent and special interests can help a student get their studies fully funded. This is the case for hobby and extracurricular-based scholarships which allow students to leverage their extracurricular activities and translate them to financial awards. The Stuck at Prom Scholarship Contest gives away $20,000 in cash grants to students who make the best prom attire out of Duck Brand Duct Tape – a duct tape outfit. Another example is the Archibald Rutledge Scholarship Program offered by the South Carolina Department of Education, which rewards skills in creative writing, dance, theater and visual art.

Military scholarships.

The U.S. has a variety of military scholarships available for military staffs, their spouses, and veterans. Most military scholarships and grants are often reserved to students who pursue subjects of obvious application within the military field such as medicine and military strategy. Moreover, all the branches of the U.S. military – the U.S. Army, the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Air Force, and the U.S. Coast Guard – can offer them partial or full scholarships through what is called Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) program.

Sources: U.S. News & World Report / Top Universities

A dream come true! These are the words that best sum up the story of Madam C.J Walker – the first African American woman to be a self-made millionaire.

Born Sarah Breedlove on December, 23, 1867 on a plantation in Delta, Louisiana Madam C.J. Walker was the daughter of Owen and Minerva Anderson Breedlove – both formerly enslaved. Due to hardships and in order to be a homeowner, she had to get married at the age of 14 with a man named Moses Mc Williams. In 1885, they had a daughter called Lelia, later known as A’Lelia Walker, who became the central figure of the Harlem Renaissance. Two years later, her husband died leaving her to raise up her only daughter on her own.

A dream that was born from scalp problem.

When Sarah moved to St. Louis to join her brothers and worked as a laundress, she started to lose most of her hair due to a scalp ailment, which is mainly triggered by poor hygiene and diet. She also noticed that many poor black women suffered from the scalp disease, leading her to find solution to cure it. She experimented with different ingredients until she was eventually able to design a secret formula that helps stimulating hair growth.

Up to that time, Sarah got her life more and more improved when she began to sell her products door-to-door in her neighborhoods in St. Louis. In 1905, she moved to Denver where she met Charles J. Walker and to whom she got engaged. Starting from then, she changed her name by taking her husband’s and finally became the well-known Madam C.J. Walker. After her name changed, she founded her business and traveled for a year to promote her products by selling Madam Walker’s Wonderful Hair Grower, a scalp conditioning and healing formula that she maintained she always dreamed of.

The birth and growth of Madam C.J. Walker’s empire.

In 1910, Madam C.J Walker set up a laboratory and beauty school in Indianapolis, the known nation’s largest inland manufacturing center, and she settled there. In addition to the factory and beauty salon, she also founded a training school. Her career knew a significant milestone as her business continued to grow and her annual sales increased, and she was repeatedly referred to as a millionaire over the last few years of her life. Apart from being a businesswoman, Madam C.J Walker was also highly involved in social and political activism. She advocated for the advancement of black Americans and for an end to lynching. When in Harlem, she took special interest in the anti-lynching movement of NAACP or National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. She contributed $5,000 to the association.

She worked hard throughout her life, but too hard to the point that she developed some health issues. She got increasingly sick and then died in 1919 in New York. Madam C.J. Walker’s life journey and experience proved that it is possible to reach success and fulfill one’s dreams through hard work, perseverance, and faith.

“I am a woman who came from the cotton fields of the South. From there I was promoted to the washtub. From there I was promoted to the cook kitchen. And from there I promoted myself into the business of manufacturing hair goods and preparations… I have built my own factory on my own ground.”  Madam C.J. Walker, July 1912.

Sources: Madam C.J. Walker website / National Women’s History Museum.

Cartoons play essential part in children’s growth, whether it is in terms of emotion, relationship and education. They are undoubtedly the most popular entertainment meant for kids. The rise of the industry of animated films over a century pushes more and more children to watch cartoons and learn more from them.

As children grow up, they start making new discoveries and want to know everything. They are definitely shaped by what they are used to seeing and hearing around them. Childhood is a critical stage that helps construct the personhood of any younger children. As a parent, making your kid’s childhood successful is not always an easy work and some parents struggle in many aspects. This is why they need to bring out new approaches using various teaching methods and valuable life lessons for their kids, like cartoons.

It is undoubtedly true that using cartoons as a part of educating kids has both its positive and negative sides. Yet, they remain useful. So, cartoons are seen as one of the best and appropriate learning methods for young children. Not only do they contribute to their full personal development but also allow them to be socially integrated, since these animated movies teach them how to deal with people and certain situations. Here are how cartoons can be beneficial for kids and help them increase their social and learning skills:

• By watching cartoons, kids develop cognitive skills which allow them to boost their logic and problem-solving ability, their visual and auditory processing, and their attention.

• Watching cartoons makes kids bilingual or multilingual. Cartoons can expose kid learners to a wide variety of languages, thus likely raising their linguistic ability.

• With cartoon shows, children are more likely to release their creative mind and build an imaginative power. Thus, they become more and more inspired to create new things based on the cartoon they watch.

• Cartoons are helpful for providing opportunity for self-expression and developing positive attitude among kid learners.

• Through cartoon shows, kids learn lessons and morals which are very important things. Every good cartoon holds a special purpose with moral subjects behind it that give the kid new knowledge and encourage them to keep learning.

By keeping in mind the last point, it is important to note that cartoons are not only made for children, but for everyone. Cartoons convey life lessons that everyone need to grasp. Animated movies based on fairy tales produced by Disney, Pixar and DreamWorks, for instance, teach us about love, courage, patience and success. Anyway, parents must remain cautious as more and more cartoons are now designed for older audience.

Sources: Kern Pioneer/ “Cartoons in language teaching and learning”, Ms. Sajna. C, International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume 119, No. 12, 2018.

“The perfect game, the sandlot, 42: the Jackie Robinson Story …” When it comes to American sport movies, baseball turns out to be the most spotlighted. Played with bat and ball between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding, baseball has long been America’s favorite pastime. It holds an important place in American society and instills national pride.

The history timeline of baseball in the U.S.

Baseball is an American family tradition. Often referred to as America’s national pastime, the game has been passed down from generation to generation. It dates back from the Civil War but staged a turnaround and got popularized during the Civil Rights Era taking place mainly during the 50s and the 60s. The story of baseball in America begins by 1839 with a Civil War hero named Abner Doubleday who is accredited with inventing the game in Cooperstown, New York. This is the part of the story that relates the first professional baseball games. However, the amateur version of the game is told to take root in England by the mid-18th century.

In 1845, a man named Alexander Joy Cartwright developed the rules of baseball and the first official game of baseball was played between the New York Knickerbockers – one of the first organized baseball teams of that time – and a group of cricket players. In 1876, the National League was established, with William Hulbert as president shortly after the American Baseball Association, also known as the Beer and Whiskey League, was created.

In 1884, the first African-American player named Moses Fleetwood Walker joined the major leagues despite the growth of Jim Crow laws and the exclusion of black players from professional leagues. Several decades have run when Hall of Famer Jackie Robinson made American history when he broke the “color barrier”  in 1947 and baseball finally led the way on integration. Before then, between World Wars I and II, the Baseball Hall of Fame inducted its first five players. In 1943, more than 500 major league players served in World War II including 37 Hall of Famers. This is also the date when the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League emerged. It was established in part to compensate for the loss of many of the best major leaguers to the war effort.

In 2000 for the first time, the major league baseball season opened in Tokyo, Japan, opposing Chicago Cubs and New York Mets. In 2002, Tsuyoshi Shinjo, an outfielder for the San Francisco Giants, became the first Japanese player to take part in a World Series game – the annual championship series of Major League Baseball (MLB) inaugurated in 1903 and first broadcast on TV in 1947.

The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum.

The Hall of Fame or the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum was established in 1939 by a Cooperstown philanthropist and businessman named Stephen Carlton Clark. He sought a way to celebrate and preserve the “national pastime”  by asking support to found the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown. His idea was welcomed and three years later the Hall of Fame building officially opened. The museum’s collection contains more than 40,000 artifacts, 250,000 baseball photographs and images, and three million library items.

Today, the museum records approximately 260,000 visitors each year, making it the top sport Hall of Fame in North America.

Sources: National Baseball Hall of Fame / Baseball and The Tenth Inning

Thanks to its various origins, ranging from Southeast Asia to East Africa, Madagascar has become the melting pot of many diverse cultures. Today, each region has its own customs and traditions making the cultural diversity of Madagascar. The Famadihana – or exhumation – is, for example, commonly practiced by the people dwelling in the highlands of Madagascar.

Practicing Famadihana as a tribute to ancestors.

Every seven or nine years, traditional Malagasy family members reunite to celebrate the famadihana which literally means “the turning of the ancestors’ bodies”. Like any typical family reunion, it is an occasion for relatives to meet again and spend time with their loved ones, both alive and deceased. The famadihana has long played an inextricably link between the world of the living and the dead. For Malagasy people, practicing exhumation is a way to show respect to their ancestors and to honor them.

Historically, the Malagasy burial custom famadihana emerged in the 1820s from the repatriation of soldiers’ remains and from ceremonies of tomb-to-tomb transfer as kin started to build new sepulchers made of stone (Pier M. Larson, 2001). The famadihana is commonly found among the Merina Malagasy whose entire way of life (and death) is based on kinship.

In the ancient times, the day after someone’s death, the dead body was buried temporarily, usually in a single grave. After at least two years, the corpse is exhumed and given another burial in which it is entombed in the family burial place (Susan Mc George, 1974). This second burial has been made one of the biggest ceremonies in the highlands of Madagascar after wedding. The second burial was celebrated with a huge family gathering around a big feast.

How the ceremony is organized and celebrated.

A few months before the D-day, relatives, whose deceased ancestors share the same tomb start discussing about the plans and the dates of the ceremony, which often fall between July and September. Just like a wedding ceremony, practicing a second burial takes time to prepare, consumes energy and costs a lot of money.

During the ceremony, neighbors and locals are invited to join the family – or the “tompon-draharaha” – and share with them what is called “vary be menaka” (sometimes spelt varibemenaka), a meal that is composed of rice and pork or beef. After that, the family proceeds to the “Famonosana”, or “the wrapping ritual” along which music and dance. Once the bodies are removed and neatly wrapped with new shrouds, festivities keep going and the attendees dance while holding the newly wrapped dead bodies of their ancestors or family members.

Over the last few decades, more people in the highlands have gone reluctant about practicing famadihana for many reasons including religion and financial issues.

Sources: “Austronesian Mortuary Ritual in History: Transformations of Secondary Burial (Famadihana) in Highland Madagascar”, Pier M. Larson, Ethnohistory (2001) / “Imerina Famadihana as a secondary burial”, Susan Mc George, 1974 / The culture trip.

There is an African proverb that says: “I am a person through other people. My humanity is tied to yours”. This proverb gives a clear idea of the Zulu concept called Ubuntu. Nelson Mandela, the inspiring symbol of freedom, tolerance, and humanity, features the perfect embodiment of the spirit of Ubuntu.

Mandela and the concept of Ubuntu.

Ubuntu is a South African term that took its origin in the Nguni language – a group of Bantu languages spoken in Southern Africa. Ubuntu literally means “humanity”. It is sometimes translated as “I am because we are” or “humanity towards other”, or “Umuntu Ngumuntu Ngabantu” in Zulu. It may then take different names in different countries and languages and cover various aspects, but the concept remains the same. Ubuntu is simply a way of life. It underpins the concept of an open society that is bound in each other. This means that human beings are all connected and that one can only grow and progress through others’ growth and progression.

Throughout his life, Mandela had always tried to share the spirit of Ubuntu until he became himself the personification of Ubuntu. He understood the ties that bind human spirits, leading him to devote his entire life to serve humanity. In his endless pursuit of freedom and justice, Mandela was constantly up to apply this “I am because we are” concept. By adopting the spirit of Ubuntu, which highlights respect, helpfulness, sharing, community, caring, trust and unselfishness, Mandela could lead South Africa to a peaceful post-apartheid transition. It has also made him a great source of inspiration of many people not only across Africa but from all other the world.

As a human rights lawyer and peacemaker, Nelson Mandela figured out that humanity is all about oneness and that the success of humanity lies only on treating others the way we treat ourselves. He once said:

“A traveler through a country would stop at a village and he did not have not to ask for food and water. Once he stops, the people give him food and attend him. That is one aspect of Ubuntu, but it will have various aspects. Ubuntu does not mean that people should address themselves. The question, therefore, is, are you going to do so in order to enable the community around you to be able to improve? These are the important things in life, and if one can do that, you have done something very important which will be appreciated.”

Nelson Mandela International Day.

Mandela Day is celebrated on 18 July every year. In November 2009, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) declared this date as “Nelson Mandela International Day”, in recognition of Nelson Mandela’s contribution to the culture of peace and freedom. In addition to honoring his legacy, it is also a day dedicated to reminding about everyone’s ability and responsibility to change the world for the better. The perfect time to take action and inspire change!

Sources: United Nations / Global Citizen / Mandela Day

Modern Malagasy culture can be described as a blend of various cultures. If we look back at Madagascar’s settlement history, from the “Vazimba” era – told as the first inhabitants of the island who are of mixed Indonesian and African origins – to its current population, Madagascar’s cultural identity has evolved over the centuries.

In the Malagasy culture, dance and music have always played an important role in expressing emotions and thoughts. With no music and dance, traditional ceremonies and festivities would be bland. During wedding ceremonies and other traditional such as the “famadihana” or exhumation and circumcision, dance and music bring Malagasy people together.

Traditional Malagasy music and dance rooted in the royal era. In the late 16th century, the “Valiha” appeared as the first and most popular Malagasy instrument. Later came the piano and the guitar.At the same time, traditional dances such as the “Afindrafindrao” emerged too.

The derivative of the trendy European quadrille dance of the 19th-century

While the Afindrafindrao historically originated in the central highlands, it is a famous dance across all the regions of Madagascar. It is said to come from the traditional Betsimisaraka dance called “basesa”, performed on valiha with guitar accompaniment. Other historians reported that the Afindrafindrao was performed by the kings of Imerina. King Radama II who had an outstanding talent for playing musical instruments was told to have initiated the Afindrafindrao. Later it would have been officially established in the Merina court under the reign of Queen Ranavalona III. Since then, the Afindrafindrao has become a custom dance for all Malagasy people and has served as the inescapable opening dance to family and social festivities.

How to dance the Afindrafindrao?

Following a line formation in which men and women are placed alternatively, the Afindrafindrao reminds us of the “English quadrille dance” in the 19th century which became popular among the noble class – kings and queens – in the capital.

The quadrille is a fashionable dance featuring four or five couples in a square setting, well-known as contredanses. It is a two-person dance showcasing predefined and repetitive dance steps. The Afindrafindrao has quite similar dance figures to contredanses andis generally executed by mixed couples of men and women. At any rate, dancing the Afindrafindrao is quite easy to learn, even for foreigners.

In the 21st century, musicians have attempted to bring a touch of modernity to the song. So did contemporary dancers by adding new steps to the traditional choreography. However, the traditional and authentic version of the Afindrafindrao remains deeply rooted in the Malagasy culture. Nothing better than the original!

The full PDF version of the magazine is available for free download (here).

Sources: “Gitara Gasy: Guitar Music of Madagascar”, Philip Lewis, 2017 / “Dance Africa: Groupe Bakomanga”, Fredara Mareva Hadley, Ph.D., 2014 / Britannica.

Tsanta Randriamihajasoa is a 23-year-old instrument virtuoso. At his very young age, he already works as a professional musician and plays diverse instruments including Valiha, flute, guitar, trumpet, organ, drums, piano, cello, sax, and accordion. At the same time, he is a composer, a producer, an arranger, a performer, and a band leader. He has already performed with different great artists and musicians like Fanja Andriamanantena, Fanaiky, Joel Rabesolo, Nicolas Vatomanga, TGC, GMMC and Meva gospel. Music – jazz in particular – has no secret to this very talented young man. He always joined the lineup for Madajazzcar festival and has toured with jazz stars. In 2018, he was selected for a cultural exchange program called “One beat”.

AMCHAM: When did your career as a professional musician start?

TSANTA: Son of musicians, I started music at a very young age. My professional career took off when I was only 11. I first played within family music band named “Sodiala”, led by my father. We performed traditional Malagasy and world music. Sodiala means “Solofo Dimbin’ny Ala” – or “heir”. Later at 15y.o., I seized the opportunity to fly on my own. Since then, I have embraced a wide variety of music and made it my career.

AMCHAM: Tell us briefly about “One Beat” program.

TSANTA: One Beat is one of the opportunities that were offered to me. It is a cultural exchange program provided by the U.S. Department of State and produced by “Found Sound Nation”and “Bang on a Can”. Each year since 2012, these music organizations select 25 outstanding musicians around the world. For the first time, Madagascar was chosen for the seventh edition. We were initially more than 1,000 participants andI thank God I was among the 25 selected.

AMCHAM: Tell us about your experience as One Beat participant.

TSANTA: Flying to the US wasa brand new experience to me and was my first time. It was a dream come true. This six-week program along the east coast of the US made me realize how important diversity is. Everything was new to my eyes and my ears. It was a pleasant atmosphere and a delightful moment! The reason why we were there was to share our music experience and to exchange with others regardless of where they come from, since we all came from different countries.

AMCHAM: How does it feel to represent Madagascar at the international level?

TSANTA: I would say that it was uplifting and thriving. Representing my country for an international program like One Beat was a source of great pride. At the same time, it feels like the more I attended the program and connect with participants, the bigger my commitment and efforts became. My goal for One Beat was to finally bring to light Madagascar and its music. Malagasy musical instruments deserve to be known. I came with a typically Malagasy instrument called “MAROVANY” and it was highly appreciated. 

The full PDF version of the magazine is available for free download (here).

When speaking of Hollywood, what comes immediately to our mind is cinema and movie stars. Apart from the famed Hollywood sign hanged on the top of the Hollywood hills which is often viewed as a symbol of the American film industry, Hollywood is also known for its many entertaining landscapes and monuments. Los Angeles has always been one of the best U.S. tourist destinations and visiting Hollywood has turned out to be a must.

A star’s story.

Stretching along the streets of Hollywood sits the world-famous Hollywood Walk of Fame, mainly located on both sides of Hollywood Boulevard and Vine Street. The Hollywood Walk of Fame has been recognized internationally as a cultural icon making it a top visitor attraction. What truly stands it out from other monuments is its five pointed terrazzo and brass stars that are implanted on the sidewalks of Hollywood Boulevard and Vine Street.

These stars essentially have symbolic meanings and represent a lot for people working in the field of entertainment and film industry. Names of musicians, actors, directors, producers, musical and theatrical groups are inscribed on the stars. Anyone, including a fan, can take part in nominating a candidate to get a star on the Walk of Fame. Once chosen, the star or their sponsor has to pay a fee for the ceremony and is given five years to set a date for it. Before officially receiving their star and having it stubbed on the famous sidewalks, the celebrity must be assessed through various criteria such as “longevity in the entertainment industry” and “contributions made to the show business community”. Today, 2,690 stars have been awarded and put on the Walk of Fame list. These stars are classified in six main categories: motion pictures, television, recording, radio, live performance, and what is called special star.

Hollywood walk of fame history.

Created in 1958, the Walk of Fame was the brainchild of a man named E.M Stuart, the Vice President of Hollywood’s Chamber of Commerce. In 1953, Stuart proposed the Walk as a tribute to the glory and glamour of Hollywood. In August 1958, the Chamber of Commerce and the City of Los Angeles unveiled publicly eight stars on Hollywood Boulevard along with actors displaying the stars for Hollywood’s three-mile Walk of Fame. From that day on, the construction of the 18-block stretch began and was completed in spring 1961. The first star to be grounded in the new Walk was that of Stanley Kramer, American film director and producer. Other stars have been continuously added and the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce as the representative of the City of Los Angeles keeps doing so every year.

In 1978, the Hollywood Walk of Fame was designated by the Cultural Heritage Board of the City of Los Angeles as Historic-Cultural Monument. Since then, an estimated 10 million visitors come each year.

Sources: Official website of the Hollywood Walk of Fame / Los Angeles Times.

Inspired by the true story and life experience of Hal Elrod, an American author and successful speaker, the phenomenon of the miracle morning has grown into a worldwide movement through his book “The Miracle Morning”. Today, many readers who gave it a try have testified changes in any or every area of their life.

The book was written based on the real life experience of Elrod. He faced several hardships such as an almost fatal accident in 1999 and many failures in almost every sphere of his life in 2007. In his hardest times, he came up with the idea of turning downs into a more rewarding life experience through changing his morning routines. From that day, his life has known a huge shift pushing him to write everything down with the confidence that anyone can truly have their life changed and wake up their full potential. His mission is to elevate the consciousness of humanity through the miracle morning exercises.

What is the miracle morning and how does it work?

In the book, the miracle morning is a set of practices engaging readers to make a small action everyday starting from getting up earlier in the morning. When writing his book, Elrod asserted about how people can attain productivity and success through switching their routines in the morning. In other words, people can literally change their lives by changing how they start their day.

Practicing the miracle morning involves using a six-steps morning routine called Life S.A.V.E.R.S which stands for Silence, Affirmations, Visualization, Exercise, Reading, and Scribing.

Silence: When waking up in the morning, there is no better feeling than being calm and in peace with oneself. Silence is the first step towards making your miracle morning a success. Just start every morning with a period of purposeful silence of at least five minutes. When doing so, you can meditate, pray, ponder, and practice breathing exercises or only gratitude.

Affirmations: It is similar to Coué method – an approach using autosuggestion to boost self-confidence – of French psychologist and pharmacist Emile Coué. This second step consists in writing down positive statements about oneself and reading them out loud in the morning. By doing this, you program yourself to be both confident and successful in everything you do.

Visualization: A crucial step that most self-help and development books mention. Visualization is about having a positive vision of your ideal life and imagining all the situations around it, even the smallest details. When you visualize, you need above all to project yourself as a winner and think in a way that everything is possible and attainable. Elrod says that you should do that for five minutes everyday in the morning.

Exercise: This is about including physical activities in the morning ritual so as to increase energy and improve health. Every morning, you only need to sweat their body for a few minutes and nothing more. Simple physical exerciseof 10 to 20 minutes is enough to start a productive day.

Reading and Scribing: Reading here is to learn from other successful persons who have already achieved their life goals via books. Hal Elrod encourages beginners to read 10 pages every morning, regularly; and to immerse themselves in self-help books rather than fiction. After reading, the last step is to put all your ideas and goals on paper while keeping a written record of your positive thoughts and the means set to reach them. The author recommends using a diary.

If these six miracle morning life savers by Hal Elrod have helped many people change their lives, why not yours? So, grab the book and start your own experience with the miracle morning!

Source: “The Miracle Morning: The Not-So-Obvious Secret Guaranteed to Transform Your Life: Before 8AM”, Hal Elrod, 2014.

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This website was funded by a grant from the United States Department of State. The opinions, findings and conclusions stated herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.